The Four Main Types of Cutting Fluids and their Properties

Cutting fluids are an instrumental part of metal machining due to their improvement of the tool life, reduction of the work piece thermal radiation, flushing away chips from the cutting area, and improving the surface finish. There are four main categories of cutting fluids:

  1. Straight oils
    These oils are non-emulsifiable and very useful in machining operations where they function in undiluted form. Their composition is a base mineral or even petroleum oil. Often they contain polar lubricants like vegetable oils, fats and esters.
    They may also contain extreme pressure additives including sulphur, chlorine, and phosphorus. To achieve the best lubrication use straight oils however they may have poor cooling characteristics.
  2. Synthetic fluids
    They do not contain mineral oil base or petroleum. Instead, they’re formulated from the alkaline organic and inorganic compounds alongside additives to prevent corrosion. They function well in their diluted form. Of all the varieties of cutting fluids, synthetic fluids offer the best cooling performance.
  3. Soluble oils
    Soluble Oils usually form an emulsion after mixing them with water. The resulting concentrate contains emulsions and a base mineral oil to produce a stable emulsion. They function well in their diluted form and offer a great lubrication in addition to heat transfer performance. They are the least expensive and are the most widely used fluids in the industry.
  4. Semi-synthetic fluids
    These fluids are basically a combination of the soluble oils and synthetic fluids. Besides, the heat transfer performance and cost of the semi-synthetic fluids falls between those of the soluble and synthetic fluids.

Therefore, if you would like to benefit from the properties and functions of the soluble and synthetic oils, you can try a semi-synthetic fluid.

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